European Union

EU Joint Resource Center. Review of the European Test Procedure for Evaporative Emissions: Main Issues and Proposed Solutions |   LINK

  • “Ethanol has a significant influence on both exhaust and evaporative emissions of petrol passenger cars when added to the fuel even at low levels (5%)”

  International Energy Agency (IEA). Biofuels for Transport |   LINK

  • “Ethanol-blended gasoline, however, produces higher evaporative HC (or volatile organic compounds, VOC)”

  United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). AR5 Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change |   LINK

  •  “[…] some biofuels indirect emissions—including from land use change—can lead to greater total emissions than when using petroleum products”