Library

In this section you can find scientific studies conducted by prestigious authorities from different geographies

Ethers 101

MTBE – Oxygenates 101 • Oxygenates are hydrocarbons that contain one or more oxygen atoms. When added to gasoline, oxygenates promote cleaner burning of the fuel in engines, reducing tailpipe emissions, particularly carbon monoxide. The use of oxygenates also dilute or displace less desirable gasoline components such as sulfur and aromatics (e.g. benzene, toluene). The…

Latin America

Mexico Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE). Mexican Official Standard NOM-016-CRE-2016, on fuel quality specifications CRE published NOM-016, allowing the use of ethanol at 6 percent (E6) as an oxygenate in gasoline blends only in the rest of the country (RdP), excluding the three metropolitan areas of Valle de México, Guadalajara and Monterrey. Mexican Petroleum Institute (IMP).…

Topic:

Empirical-study

Lab-test

North America

United States United States Government Accountability Office (GAO). Report to Congressional Requesters: Biofuels. Challenges to the Transportation, Sale and Use of Intermediate Ethanol Blends “Ethanol blended gasolines may cause older automobiles to experience higher emissions of some pollutants”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). Life cycle air quality impacts of conventional and alternative…

Topic:

Empirical-study

Lab-test

Metastudy

European Union

EU Joint Resource Center. Review of the European Test Procedure for Evaporative Emissions: Main Issues and Proposed Solutions    “Ethanol has a significant influence on both exhaust and evaporative emissions of petrol passenger cars when added to the fuel even at low levels (5%)”   International Energy Agency (IEA). Biofuels for Transport    "Ethanol-blended gasoline,…

Topic:

Lab-test

Metastudy

Asia

Japan Advanced Technology and Research Institute (ATRI) & Japan Petroleum Energy Center (JPEC). Effects of Ethanol or ETBE Blending in Gasoline on Evaporative Emissions for Japanese In-Use Passenger Vehicles Diurnal breathing loss (DBL) emissions significantly increased with 3vol% ethanol-blended gasoline (E3 gasoline), compared to base gasoline (non-oxygenated gasoline).

Topic:

Lab-test

Additional Resources

Additional resources to understand the implications of use of ethanol compared to the use of ethers as oxygenates can be found here. INTERNATIONAL United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change “Since for some biofuels, indirect emissions—including from land use change—can lead to greater total emissions than when using petroleum products, policy support needs to be…